Translator: Rhonda Jacobs
Reviewer: Peter van de Ven Inside each one of us
is a beautiful symphony. 100 billion neurons firing in concert, constructing this vivid reality
that we’re living in. And inside each little piece
of that neural activity lives a little bit of what makes you, you. And after your experiences today, that activity will have shifted
and you will never be the same. You are inextricably tied to your brain. When I first learned
these principles, when I was 16, I fell in love with the brain, and I’ve been doing
neuroscience research ever since. Now, one day, we were doing
a new MRI experiment, and I was surprised
because the experiment went well, but much to all of our shock,
I had a hole in my brain. It was a pretty big one too; it was like 30 percent
of my cerebellum just wasn’t there. (Laughter) Which, as you might imagine,
I was pretty shocked because I didn’t feel like anything
about me or my life and my experience of the world
had changed or was missing. The cerebellum is one of the most
fundamental parts of your brain. It has, like, 80 percent
of all of your neurons. So I got interested. Now, there’s this collision between what your brain
is supposed to do and then what it’s dealt, and somehow it finds a middle ground. And I became really interested in the idea of your brain
as a dynamic, flexible system. And to that end, I want to tell you
the story of Cameron Mott. Just after her third birthday,
Cameron started having violent seizures. They started becoming worse and worse, and eventually, she was losing
her ability to speak. Doctors diagnosed her with something
called Rasmussen’s encephalitis, and the only real treatment for this
was a hemisphererectomy – cutting out half of her brain. And keep in mind
that one half of your brain controls and is responsible for movement and sensation
in the other half of your body. So this surgery would immediately
leave Cameron hemiplegic. But just four weeks post-op,
she walked out of the hospital. And she is still dealing
with a bit of hemiplegia and a bit of peripheral vision loss, but otherwise, she is able
to run around with her peers, and she is cognitively quite deft – it’s amazing. And I wondered, you know – consider that for a second: if I gave you half of a car,
or half of a phone, you wouldn’t be going anywhere in LA, and you wouldn’t be on Twitter right now tweeting about how
mind expanding TEDxUCLA is. (Laughter) Because for most devices,
50 percent equals broken. But somehow in this instance with Cameron, 50 percent is almost equal to 100 percent. How is that possible? Well, the remaining part
of Cameron’s brain sensed the massive loss of neural tissue, and it physically rewired
and reorganized itself to take over everything that
the other half had previously handled. That is an ability
known as neuroplasticity. It’s the ability of the brain
to change itself – to rewire. And so, I think it’s
not a very good analogy when people say your brain
is like a computer. It’s actually just a really bad one
because your brain is not static hardware. And although the prevailing view
in neuroscience for a long time was that the adult brain
is a fixed processing unit, it seems like every day
we find a new result that says that’s not the case at all. While there is structure to your brain,
it is dynamic, flexible biology. Let me say that again: You and your brain are static,
but you’re also dynamic – you can change yourself. So the idea worth spreading is this: What if we were able
to treat injuries and impairments in an entirely new way, by hacking into your brain’s
ability to rewire itself. To show you what I mean, let’s look at how
we’ve treated depression. Since 1952, scientists and doctors have addressed
the question of treatment for depression as a fixed hardware problem where there is a deficiency
of “happy” neurotransmitters, like serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine. And in this context,
it makes perfect sense that the way to go about it
is to discover and design drugs which increase
those neurotransmitter levels. Enter MAOIs, tricyclics, SSRIs –
there are hundreds of them, but they all work
in pretty much the same way. And these are marvels of modern medicine. I mean, on anti-depressants, we see about two-thirds of people
see some sort of symptom relief. But that still leaves
1.5 million people, in the US alone, who are still struggling
to enjoy their lives, who are becoming disconnected
from their friends and their families. It is an awful, debilitating disease. So what if we were able –
what would become possible – if we addressed the problem
from the perspective of neuroplasticity? So what we’re doing is we’re essentially
finding regions in the brain that show different activation
in depressed patients than in normals. So for example, if someone with depression
shows dorsolateral prefrontal cortex – it is not as active
as it is in other brains – we actually use electromagnetic currents
from devices placed on the scalp to induce neural rewiring in those areas. So in the case of the area
that was less active than normal, we give a pulse, we stimulate it, we do whatever we can
over several sessions to say, Can we upregulate that? Can we make this brain essentially
push back towards normal behavior, one area at a time? And while this is a new technology, some of the pioneering work
by Dr. Jonathan Downer at the University of Toronto shows nearly a 33 percent remission rate
for treatment-resistant depression, which is depression where patients
have seen no relief from therapy, they’ve seen no relief
from anti-depressants, and they are running out of options. And another wonderful thing
about the idea of neuroplasticity is that while drugs are very specific
on a molecular level, they’re quite general still
in their delivery, often affecting a whole host of parts
around the body that we didn’t intend, and leading to the laundry list
of side effects that you’re probably
used to hearing at rapid speed at the end of drug commercials. But neuroplasticity
kind of takes the other approach. Instead, we’re targeting
very large patches of your brain, but we’re leaving the rest of you alone. We’re now in the midst
of the personal medicine revolution – you can sequence your genome;
you can get SNPs – it’s $100-$200. I think neuroplasticity can fit into this
because the devices that we use can be tailored very specifically
to each individual. We can deliver just the right
stimulating pulse for John, and we can give just the right
targeting area for Jenny. There is a lot of flexibility
to make sure that we address the fact that we’re as different
on the inside – probably more so – than we are on the outside, and any optimal treatment mechanism
should cater to that. So, to me this seems like
science fiction coming true. I mean, we are on the frontier of non-invasively
being able to rewire your brain to alleviate certain types
of mental disorders. While there is certainly debate
in the literature as there always is: What’s the right sham?
What’s the right control? Where do you target? It doesn’t matter. We’re almost there,
and the possibilities are startling. And once we get there,
the next question becomes, If we can rewire your brain using devices, would it at all be possible
to help your brain rewire itself with just your own thoughts? I know it seems kind of crazy, but that’s the idea of something
called real-time neurofeedback. Essentially, what we’re doing, if you give the example of,
let’s addiction. In cocaine addiction, we show a subject
luring images of cocaine, and we induce their craving networks. So these are cocaine addicts. And then we present them
with a real-time feedback of what their brain is actually doing. What is the craving network
in your brain really doing? And the idea is that we’re asking people
to surf their mental landscape and do whatever it is they need to do
to make that bar go down, which essentially is exploiting
whatever conscious control, and probably in most cases
unconscious control, that you have over your own brain
to rewire it intelligently at just the right times, with just a little bit of biofeedback. Now, I think this has real implications
for the legal system because we’re getting to the point where our neurochemistry –
it’s getting really good. We’re now able to give
different types of drugs to change mood states. And in one case, we, as a government,
are now disarming criminals with drugs. And that might sound like
a 1984-esque type of statement, but consider that we already do it. In California and many other states, we mandate what’s called
chemical castration for re-offending sex offenders. So they’re forced to take
medroxyprogesterone acetate to reduce their libido –
and it’s effective. And I’m not here to comment
on the morality of the subject, but I do feel that as we look for new ways
to rehabilitate criminals instead of warehouse them, neuroplasticity
would be an incredible option, where, before we say, you have to take this drug
or we’re not letting you out, we instead see, Is there any possibility for this person
to be rewired or to rewire themselves? And moving beyond deficits,
what if instead of just treating deficits, we actually use this to improve ourselves,
just our own impulse control – where – yeah, alright, I don’t know
which one I want right now – (Laughter) where we use our own
intelligent brain plasticity to modulate and upregulate
our long-term decision-making, our attention, our impulse control. What if we went
to the biofeedback mental gym as much as we went to the real gym,
and we lifted our behavioral problems with as much vigor
as we lift our 45 pound plates. I think it’s a beautiful idea. And there’s one more application
of neuroplasticity I’d like to talk with you about, but in order to do so,
we’re going to run a quick experiment. Everyone look under your seats. Some of you will see a pair of earplugs;
they look like this. And some of you stole them
before the break. (Laughter) I know who you are. Pull them out. Okay. So here’s the experiment. Those of you who have earplugs,
you’re going to be speakers, and everyone else,
you’re going to be listeners. Okay? Open them up. Get ready. Now, I’d like you all
to meet my friend Mimi. Mimi is seven months old,
and she loves to talk. When I press Play, your job, speakers,
is to mimic what she’s saying. Listeners, your job
is to see how well did they do. Okay, put in your earplugs. And for those of you at home, go ahead and plug your ears
the old fashioned way and see if you can play along. (Cute baby noises) [Take out your earplugs] (Laughter) Yeah, like, pretty terrible, actually. And look, I kind of set you all up
to fail on that one because lip reading
is a really difficult problem. But lip reading babies who,
as all you missed, can make vocalizations
without their mouth moving at all, and then who speak
with toys in their mouth is a really, really difficult problem. This is harder than neuroscience. (Laughter) And so imagine, though,
that Mimi is your child, and this is every day of your life. That’s the reality for deaf parents and the over 90 percent of their children
who are hearing-able. And this can lead
to a real divide between families because parents are unable
to engage in traditional baby talk. And it’s now very clear
that traditional baby talk is not the cute or annoying
musings of parents, but instead, it is a tool
specifically designed by nature to teach language
and to foster connection. And you can imagine if that was gone,
it would be a really difficult issue. So the question that Dr. Arianna Anderson
and myself at UCLA asked was, If you can’t get infant vocalizations
in through the ears, is there another option? Well, when you scan brains
across the population, you see that there are very specific
parts of your cortex that are devoted to processing
one type of sensory modality or another. So, for example, this morning on the TEDx
tour through UCLA’s Staglin Center, we see that there’s a very particular
part of Stephanie’s brain that lights up to only visual information. And independently, there’s a completely separate part
of the brain that responds only to touch. But here’s where
it gets really interesting. When you scan the brains
while blind people are feeling braille, you don’t just get the touch parts
of their brain active, you see visual areas active as well. And similarly, when you scan the brains
of the deaf population while they’re communicating
using sign language, you don’t just see the visual areas active
from seeing the gestures, but you actually see
auditory cortex activated. Somehow, your brain isn’t just plastic,
it’s not just random, it is intelligently plastic. And somehow, it’s rewiring itself
in order to maximize and process as much information
from the outside world as possible. Somehow your brain is learning
to see braille and to hear sign language. So, this is called sensory substitution, and the idea, as Paul Bach-y-Rita
and David Eagleman have exploited, is that you can take information
from one sense that’s lost, translate it to a different
sensory modality, and put it in that way. Surprisingly, your brain figures it out
because your brain is plastic. And this is the idea that we’ve taken, and we’ve moved forward
with developing an application with a small grant from UCLA
called “Chatter Baby.” And what Chatter Baby does is it turns auditory information
into visual information – it’s a type of sensory substitution. So now Mimi’s chatter
comes alive in visual form. You don’t miss anything now. Even though her lips aren’t moving,
you can see what’s going on. And the idea is that deaf parents
can use this tool to learn baby talk and to connect
as deeply as possible with their child, and we believe that eventually, once they become fluent
in using this tool, they will be able
to hear their child through sight. And to me, that is just such an important
application of neuroplasticity. And this shows
that it’s not just a fun tool for turning auditory
information into visuals, but instead, sensory
processing plasticity, it has the ability to connect
deaf parents and their babies. That’s the power of plasticity. But that’s only half the battle. The other part of this disconnect is that when deaf parents
aren’t in the same room as their children, they don’t know what mood they’re in. And the best baby monitors
out there on the market, they say, yes, there’s sound;
no, there’s no sound. But that doesn’t really tell me
what I care about. It doesn’t tell me,
Is my child happy and content? Or instead, Are they hungry? Are they crying? Is something going on that I need
to be there and I need to address? Instead, I’m constantly wondering, Sound?
No sound? I don’t know. So what we’re doing with Chatter Baby is we are gathering the world’s
largest database of infant sounds, and we’re then using
sophisticated mathematics to take that sound and predict
what child’s mood states are. So he’s really hungry. (Applause) And the idea is that we can use
neuroplasticity to make a real difference in how deaf parents
communicate with their children. And I’ve talked to you about now
how to treat depression and addiction and sensory impairments
using neuroplasticity, but that’s really only the beginning. We’re starting to move into diseases that you wouldn’t expect would
be treated by something like this, like Alzheimer’s
and Parkinson’s and stroke. And that’s really just the beginning
of what I’ve been calling neurohacking. And I don’t mean neurohacking in the sense
that these aren’t thoroughly researched – they’re really well thought out ideas, and there’s a lot of literature
to support why they work. But in the sense that we’re not
directly trying to fix the nuts and the bolts
of all these problems; we’re not trying to change
every biochemical cascade that’s going on in the brain, which is essentially
the root of the problem. But there are a hundred trillion
connections in your brain, and each one of them is like a city with a thousand
chemical cascades going on. It is such a difficult problem. So instead, what I think some
of the biggest advances in neuroscience and all of what we’re doing
is going to be exploiting, this incredible quality
of your brain that is uniquely yours to rewire and reallocate itself
based on what it needs. And if we step back for a moment
from neuroscience, the question for you I have today is, Where in your life
are you waiting to understand every little nut and bolt
of a problem, every nuance, before you decide to solve it
and make a change? If you’re trying effect social change
in Los Angeles with six million people, there’s probably a couple million
that don’t want to hear your story, and they are not going to helpful to you. But instead of focusing on what’s broken
and what doesn’t work, maybe take a lesson from neurohacking and use what does still work
to get the results you want. Thank you. (Applause)

Articles, Blog Tags:

100 thoughts on “Neurohacking: rewiring your brain | Don Vaughn | TEDxUCLA

  1. Do they practice Electro magnetic currents to help stroke survivors I’m in uk and after 15 months post stroke my arm and hand still are not functional for me xx

  2. This is reinventing the wheel with the addition of tech use and scientific jargon!
    All this brain rewiring stuff and brain plasticity is known in ancient meditation techniques and practices.

  3. This is so exciting!! I've been doing a lot of research and reading about neuroplasticity and find it fascinating! The possibilities are enormous for helping people with alzheimers, depression, addiction, mood disorders. I love and agree with him that taking drugs may help some people in the short term but may also do long term damage.

  4. I find it a bit baffling that the visual cortex gets activated when a blind person feels the braille and that a deaf person's auditory cortex gets activated when they see sign languages! What is causing these areas of to be activated in these subjects?? If the relevant areas get activated, why is the brain not able to produce the respective sensory perceptions???

  5. Jack Nicholson loves this. (Or he DID). Now he is a vegetable.  ("Vegetable" is an old-fashioned euphemism for the more politically correct term "veggie".)

  6. Very interesting with good ideas. What about pharmaceutical meds and fluoride effects on the brain??

  7. Awesome talk.
    What's funny is that… I've been watching tons of Ted Talks about neuroplasticity to see how I can fix my treatment-resistant depression because I'm literally out of options… and this guy talks about the exact topic I was researching. 🙂

  8. It occurrs to me that this could backfire, the babytalk thing. If a baby begins to communicate using only gurgles and cuing, what reason is there for him to learn to speak? He's already speaking. Wasn't it our needs as babies that pushed us to learn words like hungry or cookie? Sure he will be able to communicate with his parents but I'm concerned this could delay the beginning his learning a language.

  9. I'm also extremely interested in Neural plasticity but not from an academic view point. I'm interested in personal growth and how to get there. I don't have any note worthy impediments like stroke or epilepsy. I just want to do specific things better. My focus at the moment is playing drums at age 70 which is frivolous but please keep reading.
    Decades ago, George Stone wrote a book called Stick Control which is a collection of RLRR LRLL and other examples of this idea. His instruction was to play each exercise a few times and move on to the next in precise metronome time where there is no stress. Of coarse I rejected all this when young wanting to get to the good stuff and be playing at the Hollywood bowl with Cream asap! Shockingly, it never happened! Fast forward to age seventy and Neural Plasticity, I clearly know where I went wrong. I didn't do the right process to make the connections for my extremities to do what I wanted them to do. Apparently, some people have the capacity to do what they are told like practice Stick Control diligently without question with total belief in the outcome. I'm not one of them! The missing information for me was the "How is this going to work and what is happening when doing it?" Certainly George Stone didn't know either but somehow he had some inspiration or special knowledge ? Anyhow, I recently started working through his book. First time I tried, it seemed impossible. My coordination and timing was totally off. I persisted with it only by trust there would be improvement and it did. Six months later, I was exposed to Neurol Plasticity and found the missing link to my learning deficiencies. Two days ago, I challenged myself to applying Stick Control exercises but, this time using my left hand and right foot. Day one, it was once again seemingly impossible however, I told myself, I know how this works. I'm creating the necessary neural connection in my brain. It's not an extremity problem, age related deficiency or any other perceived (I can't) reason. I worked this 4 times the first day for about 5 minutes each time. I mixed the exercise up by playing it for eight measures without stopping and stop for a measure. Then I played it for one measure and rested for one. I did this because I noticed a lack of accuracy when starting. I struggled with that some. The next morning, I started again and to my joy, it had become remarkably easier and the accuracy was superb. I realized that in a very short period of time and effort and in a very controlled and disciplined way, I had established the pathway in my brain for this task. The confidence this brings to light is invaluable.

  10. Excellent lecture by Don Vaughan on rewiring your brain. Fantastic study. The brains nature being, Neuro plasticity in nature , by carefully rewiring it can help solving many brain related sickness. Thank you.

  11. It was so hard to follow along with what he's saying. He is just so nice to look at…lol You gotta just love a hot guy with a brain 😍 I would totally be a test subject for anything he needs lol

  12. I'm glad that he didn't go off on a biased rant about medication. I'm glad that he recognised their efficacy in many cases.

  13. I'm not buying any of it. I put this to you: Depression is not a brain (or biological) problem. It doesn't result from a brain deficit or dysfunction. Anti-depressant labels contain the words, "it is thought that (this med works by …. )" "It is THOUGHT?" So you've been using me for experimenting with a theory or hunch, and if it works in some people, you're not quite sure why? (saying this to the doctors.)

    I would put to you that "depression" is a problem of the spirit, it is a symptom of the reality of the outside world somehow colliding with your own construct or perception or expectation of the outside world. For example, we might have a belief: "When I get married, we will happily ever after." Enter reality and the groom runs off with the bridesmaid or whatever. the result is depression.

    So depression, I believe (having been unsuccessfully 'treated' with all manner of drugs for 15 years), is better to be resolved through encouraging, massaging along, the processes of grief, no matter how long they take, with exercise, good sleep routine, good diet, as far as possible stability, (not entering into any stressful events, cleaning out toxic and negative people, etc), and the help of a mental health professional, or therapist.

  14. You should check out the effects of Valproate (Depakote) which is used as a “mood stabilizer” on the fetus. SHOCKINGLY horrific

  15. God, I'm so happy to see that handsome guys are capable of doing other things as well, other than partying, drinking only ❤️❤️❤️

  16. If you want to improve communication between parents and children teach them sign language, they can sign words quicker than they can learn to speak them and can gesticulate their needs long before they express them verbally, other than with crying. If you really want to improve a family dynamic, start there.

  17. He's talking about Neuroplasticty. I believe NLP therapy uses this principle and and a course called The Lightnng Process.

  18. My parents are deaf, I think the visual tool would be good on a baby monitor so you could see from another room, but I don't know if they would want to watch the tool rather than look at the baby. Deaf parents still make sounds to their hearing able babies. When I had my children and my deaf mother would care for my children she seemed to always know how they baby felt, I assume by action and facial expression. And I think she can read these actions better than a hearing able person (only when she could see the baby) because a deaf person has to learn and understand actions more than a hear able person, like people say if your missing a sense , other senses are heightened. Maybe some deaf parents would like this tool. I've heard it is easier to learn sign and communicate as a baby, before speaking, also I understand babies mimicking sounds and learning language is important, however seeing the sound doesn't quite teach them to mimic our sounds, they can't hear themselves to know if they are correctly making the sounds. However I guess this is a great tool if it can honestly correctly convey a message from baby to parent of true emotion,feeling, or need.

    Anyway I thought everything else was amazing about neuroplasticity (hope I spelled that right) I hope it becomes more common,and affordable, because there's so much potential in helping people with so many different things! I'm so glad to hear about this!

  19. I think you took it too literal when you said that a computer is not like the brain because if the computer breaks, it does not work. The main idea is to design strong AI where it can mimic human's mind at its finest – which, of course, requires the machine to be working perfectly. As you said, neuroplasticity is a marvelous ability of our brain, but that is not the goal of AI.

  20. Plasticity usually implies it cant change. Typically elasticity is used for describing something that is malleable or changeable. What's the deal here? Why is he using the words incorrectly?

  21. The downvotes are probably ai bots that are trying to sway people away from knowledge that will save this planet and our species. Ai and or the creators of "it" are from the occult set on destroying those of us that are not down with the darkness, stay with the light people and keep positive!

  22. I've noticed that a lot of TEDx talks are actually indirect infomercials, which might explain why, at the time of this post, the dislikes are at 14%?

    This isn't to say that Don is not sincere or accurate with his information. His product may be a wonderful thing, and the information he provides is very helpful and educational. Not to mention that he's very easy on the eyes… 😉

  23. ABSOLUTELY 100% TRUE the possibilities are startling, we have the power of self-healing by purposefully dictating the healing process. The lack of connection when we’re most ready to learn! What an audacious idea to rewire our Brain? You should team up with JOE DISPENZA, I’m sure two minds seeing the same could come up with something extraordinary like how to do it??? The fact that we’re getting closer is because we’re going inwardly:) You’re right the possibilities are starting please keep going………..

  24. Unfortunatelly i feel i need the real solid science data/journal to back this talk… because it feels abit all over the place

  25. Easier and much cheaper way to rewire a brain: psilocybin or better known as magic mushroom. Psilocybin needs to be legalized so that we can start doing more comprehensive studies of the many benefits and disorders that it can help, heal and even cure.

  26. Summary:
    Removing one half of the brain will cause neuroplasticity of remaining half to be almost fully fuctional.
    You can 'see" sounds with and "hear images" activating visual and auditory neurological systems thanks to neuroplasticity.
    Devices with electromagnetic currents will rewire your brain using neuroplasticity. 30% success rate treating non responsive depression.
    Working on ways to translate baby language to deaf parents.

  27. I had to start watching this video from the beginning twice. I realized that I wasn't paying attention, he is so hot! ;-D

  28. Great jacket Don. The missing cerebellum thing is just that your a psychopath, but lots of psychopaths are perfectly normal people, so the term psychopath is too broad and very insulting, What you are doing seems a bit like trying to exercise muscle by shocking, its not going to work. You are not there yet at all Don. I'm more excited about synthetic devices like neurolink , maybe DNA memory implants later with devices like crispr, I think shocking parts of the brain in sessions is not going to be that ground breaking however the brain scanning technologies you might use to try to measure results could be useful if we could start linking them up to smartphones and maybe try to get more brain data, like can we make mini Mri devices, or maybe brain scan devices that uses light to scan the brain as was demonstrated a number of years ago. Maybe eventually we can augment the brain with artificial neural networks for things like neuralink rather than just using it to make prosthetic arms move, Darpa look to be working on it so eventually it should filter out to the commercial market after they feel more in control of it, as usual.

  29. If we can rewire the brain, we can make some crazy super humans. Not on board with that!! We all know that things will be used in both good and bad ways.

  30. i dont understand the thumbs down? why so many? have they not thought about it? been desperate enough for an answer that seems intertwined with spirit and science?

  31. there's an episode of the Simpsons where Homer's brother (played by Danny DeVito) creates this exact same invention…..

  32. Don, thank you. You really have talent for lecturing. It is amazingly easy to listen to you talking on a demanding subject.

  33. What about neurohacking the brain as a way to help people with Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, etc.? Other than DBS for Parkin's…

  34. What if we arm ourselves with this technology in preventing anyone from believing they have any sort of right to assault someone.

    Apparently a fire arm has become obsolete and the new 2nd Amendment would now be to bare arms with these technological weapons.

    Anything for medicinal purposes is not the point here. Helping someone's health is recommended by most.
    However, whenever medicine is to be implemented as a weapon then that means it's now time for everyone to defend themselves. If someone doesn't want your help or treatment then no one has a right to impose it onto anyone.

    Amendment VIII of the U.S. constitution:

    "Excessive bail shall not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel and unusual punishments inflicted."

    No social contract has been established too where everyone is on bored with this form of treatment.
    I believe all things should be accessible for everyone equally. Now we have to defend our minds/thoughts and freedom.

    Thank you for this presentation. Let's see how this pans out.

  35. Neuroplasticity and brain stimulator wires into the brain. Why can Surgeons do it for the heart (pacemaker) or liver and not for the most important organ of all our brain? surgical intervention in lieu of pharmaceuticals? Parkinson patients are receiving brain stimulators in the brain. yes, there may be some side effects, yet worth the risk. the future is here to benefit us if we embrace the novelty.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *